Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版) | 影の域

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Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版)

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[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v5.5 最后修改:2009.09.18 原文链接:http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v5/]

前言:本文是我撰写的关于搭建“Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)”Web服务器的第5篇文章。本系列文章作为国内最早详细介绍 Nginx + PHP 安装、配置、使用的资料之一,为推动 Nginx 在国内的发展产生了积极的作用。这是一篇关于Nginx 0.7.x系列版本的文章,安装、配置方式与第4篇文章相差不大,但增加了MySQL安装配置的信息、PHP 5.2.10 的 php-fpm 补丁。Nginx 0.7.x系列版本虽然为开发版,但在很多大型网站的生产环境中已经使用。

链接:《2007年9月的第1版》、《2007年12月的第2版》、《2008年6月的第3版》、《2008年8月的第4版

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Nginx (“engine x”) 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和稳定性,使得国内使用 Nginx 作为 Web 服务器的网站也越来越多,其中包括新浪博客新浪播客网易新闻等门户网站频道,六间房56.com等视频分享网站,Discuz!官方论坛水木社区等知名论坛,豆瓣YUPOO相册海内SNS迅雷在线等新兴Web 2.0网站。

Nginx 的官方中文维基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs

在高并发连接的情况下,Nginx是Apache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache的10倍

根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients为4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。

而这台 Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程消耗150M内存(15M*10=150M),开启的64个php-cgi进程消耗1280M内存(20M*64=1280M),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共消耗不到2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25个php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才500M。

在3万并发连接下,访问Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器的PHP程序,仍然速度飞快。下图为Nginx的状态监控页面,显示的活动连接数为28457(关于Nginx的监控页配置,会在本文接下来所给出的Nginx配置文件中写明):

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我生产环境下的两台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器,跑多个一般复杂的纯PHP动态程序,单台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器跑PHP动态程序的处理能力已经超过“700次请求/秒”,相当于每天可以承受6000万(700*60*60*24=60480000)的访问量(更多信息见此),而服务器的系统负载也不高:

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2009年9月3日下午2:30,金山游戏《剑侠情缘网络版叁》临时维护1小时(http://kefu.xoyo.com/gonggao/jx3/2009-09-03/750438.shtml),大量玩家上官网,论坛、评论、客服等动态应用Nginx服务器集群,每台服务器的Nginx活动连接数达到2.8万,这是笔者遇到的Nginx生产环境最高并发值。

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下面是用100个并发连接分别去压生产环境中同一负载均衡器VIP下、提供相同服务的两台服务器,一台为Nginx,另一台为Apache,Nginx每秒处理的请求数是Apache的两倍多,Nginx服务器的系统负载、CPU使用率远低于Apache:

你可以将连接数开到10000~30000,去压Nginx和Apache上的phpinfo.php,这是用浏览器访问Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而访问Apache服务器的phpinfo.php,则是该页无法显示。4G内存的服务器,即使再优化,Apache也很难在“webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php”的压力情况下正常访问,而调整参数优化后的Nginx可以。

webbench 下载地址:http://blog.s135.com/post/288/

注意:webbench 做压力测试时,该软件自身也会消耗CPU和内存资源,为了测试准确,请将 webbench 安装在别的服务器上。

测试结果:##### Nginx + PHP #####

[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
Webbench – Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec.
Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed.

top – 14:06:13 up 27 days,  2:25,  2 users,  load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51
Tasks: 287 total,   4 running, 283 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 49.9% us,  6.7% sy,  0.0% ni, 41.4% id,  1.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.8% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  2959468k used,  3270548k free,   635992k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,     3696k used,  2027912k free,  1231444k cached

测试结果:#####  Apache + PHP #####

[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
Webbench – Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=42184 pages/min, 31512914 bytes/sec.
Requests: 21092 susceed, 0 failed.

top – 14:06:20 up 27 days,  2:13,  2 users,  load average: 62.15, 26.36, 13.42
Tasks: 318 total,   7 running, 310 sleeping,   0 stopped,   1 zombie
Cpu(s): 80.4% us, 10.6% sy,  0.0% ni,  7.9% id,  0.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.9% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  3075948k used,  3154068k free,   379896k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,    12592k used,  2019016k free,  1117868k cached

为什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?这得益于Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6内核)和kqueue(freebsd)网络I/O模型,而Apache则使用的是传统的select模型。目前Linux下能够承受高并发访问的Squid、Memcached都采用的是epoll网络I/O模型。

处理大量的连接的读写,Apache所采用的select网络I/O模型非常低效。下面用一个比喻来解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型进行之间的区别:

假设你在大学读书,住的宿舍楼有很多间房间,你的朋友要来找你。select版宿管大妈就会带着你的朋友挨个房间去找,直到找到你为止。而epoll版宿管大妈会先记下每位同学的房间号,你的朋友来时,只需告诉你的朋友你住在哪个房间即可,不用亲自带着你的朋友满大楼找人。如果来了10000个人,都要找自己住这栋楼的同学时,select版和epoll版宿管大妈,谁的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并发服务器中,轮询I/O是最耗时间的操作之一,select和epoll的性能谁的性能更高,同样十分明了。

安装步骤:
(系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)
一、获取相关开源程序:
1、【适用CentOS操作系统】利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers

2、【适用RedHat操作系统】RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包(事先可通过类似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安装)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安装,以下是RPM包下载网址:
①、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

②、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

③、RPM包搜索网站
http://rpm.pbone.net/
http://www.rpmfind.net/

④、RedHat AS4 系统环境,通常情况下缺少的支持包安装:
Ⅰ、i386 系统

wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm

Ⅱ、x86_64 系统

wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm

3、【适用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系统】下载程序源码包:
本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2009年09月18日的最新稳定版。
①、从软件的官方网站下载:

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.10.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.5.3/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.2.2.tgz

②、从blog.s135.com下载(比较稳定,只允许在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通过Wget、Curl等命令下载以下软件):

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.2.2.tgz

二、安装PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI模式)
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.10所需的支持库:

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure –enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.38

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.38/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ –enable-assembler –with-extra-charsets=complex –enable-thread-safe-client –with-big-tables –with-readline –with-ssl –with-embedded-server –enable-local-infile –with-plugins=innobase
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../

附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。

①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录

mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/

②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db –basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data –user=mysql

③、创建my.cnf配置文件:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf

输入以下内容:

[client]
default-character-set = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysql]
prompt=”(\u:blog.s135.com:)[\d]> ”
no-auto-rehash

[mysqld]
#default-character-set = utf8
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 300
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

skip-name-resolve
master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2048M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:1024M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

④、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

输入以下内容(这里的用户名admin和密码12345678接下来的步骤会创建):

#!/bin/sh

mysql_port=3306
mysql_username=”admin”
mysql_password=”12345678″

function_start_mysql()
{
printf “Starting MySQL…\n”
/bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
printf “Stoping MySQL…\n”
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
printf “Restarting MySQL…\n”
function_stop_mysql
sleep 5
function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘bin/mysqld_safe’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘libexec/mysqld’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
}

if [ “$1” = “start” ]; then
function_start_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “stop” ]; then
function_stop_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “restart” ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “kill” ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
printf “Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n”
fi

⑤、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:

chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

⑥、启动MySQL:

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start

⑦、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时直接回车):

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

⑧、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678):

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’127.0.0.1’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;

⑨、(可选)停止MySQL:

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop

3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)

tar zxvf php-5.2.10.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.10 -p1
cd php-5.2.10/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc –with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config –with-iconv-dir=/usr/local –with-freetype-dir –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-zlib –with-libxml-dir=/usr –enable-xml –disable-rpath –enable-discard-path –enable-safe-mode –enable-bcmath –enable-shmop –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –with-curl –with-curlwrappers –enable-mbregex –enable-fastcgi –enable-fpm –enable-force-cgi-redirect –enable-mbstring –with-mcrypt –with-gd –enable-gd-native-ttf –with-openssl –with-mhash –enable-pcntl –enable-sockets –with-ldap –with-ldap-sasl –with-xmlrpc –enable-zip –enable-soap –without-pear
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS=’-liconv’
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
curl http://pear.php.net/go-pear | /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php

4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config –with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz
cd imagick-2.2.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = “./”
修改为extension_dir = “/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”
并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
extension = “memcache.so”
extension = “pdo_mysql.so”
extension = “imagick.so”

再查找output_buffering = Off
修改为output_buffering = On

自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:

sed -i ‘s#extension_dir = “./”#extension_dir = “/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”\nextension = “memcache.so”\nextension = “pdo_mysql.so”\nextension = “imagick.so”\n#’ /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i ‘s#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#’ /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g” /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:

[eaccelerator]
zend_extension=”/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so”
eaccelerator.shm_size=”64″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″

7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.s135.com和www.s135.com两个虚拟主机使用的目录:

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www

8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name=”display_errors”>0</value>改为<value name=”display_errors”>1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

<?xml version=”1.0″ ?>
<configuration>All relative paths in this config are relative to php’s install prefix<section name=”global_options”>

Pid file
<value name=”pid_file”>/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

Error log file
<value name=”error_log”>/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

Log level
<value name=”log_level”>notice</value>

When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS …
<value name=”emergency_restart_threshold”>10</value>

… in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator’s shared memory.
<value name=”emergency_restart_interval”>1m</value>

Time limit on waiting child’s reaction on signals from master
<value name=”process_control_timeout”>5s</value>

Set to ‘no’ to debug fpm
<value name=”daemonize”>yes</value>

</section>

<workers>

<section name=”pool”>

Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
<value name=”name”>default</value>

Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
Valid syntax is ‘ip.ad.re.ss:port’ or just ‘port’ or ‘/path/to/unix/socket’
<value name=”listen_address”>127.0.0.1:9000</value>

<value name=”listen_options”>

Set listen(2) backlog
<value name=”backlog”>-1</value>

Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
<value name=”owner”></value>
<value name=”group”></value>
<value name=”mode”>0666</value>
</value>

Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
<value name=”php_defines”>
<value name=”sendmail_path”>/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
<value name=”display_errors”>1</value>
</value>

Unix user of processes
<value name=”user”>www</value>

Unix group of processes
<value name=”group”>www</value>

Process manager settings
<value name=”pm”>

Sets style of controling worker process count.
Valid values are ‘static’ and ‘apache-like’
<value name=”style”>static</value>

Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
Used with any pm_style.
<value name=”max_children”>128</value>

Settings group for ‘apache-like’ pm style
<value name=”apache_like”>

Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
<value name=”StartServers”>20</value>

Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
<value name=”MinSpareServers”>5</value>

Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
<value name=”MaxSpareServers”>35</value>

</value>

</value>

The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
Should be used when ‘max_execution_time’ ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
‘0s’ means ‘off’
<value name=”request_terminate_timeout”>0s</value>

The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
‘0s’ means ‘off’
<value name=”request_slowlog_timeout”>0s</value>

The log file for slow requests
<value name=”slowlog”>logs/slow.log</value>

Set open file desc rlimit
<value name=”rlimit_files”>65535</value>

Set max core size rlimit
<value name=”rlimit_core”>0</value>

Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
<value name=”chroot”></value>

Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
<value name=”chdir”></value>

Redirect workers’ stdout and stderr into main error log.
If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
<value name=”catch_workers_output”>yes</value>

How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
For endless request processing please specify 0
Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
<value name=”max_requests”>102400</value>

Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
<value name=”allowed_clients”>127.0.0.1</value>

Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
<value name=”environment”>
<value name=”HOSTNAME”>$HOSTNAME</value>
<value name=”PATH”>/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
<value name=”TMP”>/tmp</value>
<value name=”TMPDIR”>/tmp</value>
<value name=”TEMP”>/tmp</value>
<value name=”OSTYPE”>$OSTYPE</value>
<value name=”MACHTYPE”>$MACHTYPE</value>
<value name=”MALLOC_CHECK_”>2</value>
</value>

</section>

</workers>

</configuration>

9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为200(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。

三、安装Nginx 0.8.15
1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:

tar zxvf pcre-7.9.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

2、安装Nginx

tar zxvf nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.15/
./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../

3、创建Nginx日志目录

mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs

4、创建Nginx配置文件
①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

输入以下内容:

user  www www;
worker_processes 8;
error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;
pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
use epoll;
worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
include       mime.types;
default_type  application/octet-stream;

#charset  gb2312;

server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
client_header_buffer_size 32k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
client_max_body_size 8m;

sendfile on;
tcp_nopush     on;

keepalive_timeout 60;

tcp_nodelay on;

fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

gzip on;
gzip_min_length  1k;
gzip_buffers     4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;

#limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

server
{
listen       80;
server_name  blog.s135.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

#limit_conn   crawler  20;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
{
expires      30d;
}

location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
{
expires      1h;
}

log_format  access  ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
}

server
{
listen       80;
server_name  www.s135.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root  /data0/htdocs/www;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

log_format  wwwlogs  ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
}

server
{
listen  80;
server_name  status.blog.s135.com;

location / {
stub_status on;
access_log   off;
}
}
}

②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

输入以下内容:

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

5、启动Nginx

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP

vi /etc/rc.local

在末尾增加以下内容:

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

五、优化Linux内核参数

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

在末尾增加以下内容:

# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535

使配置立即生效:

/sbin/sysctl -p

六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

2、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:

ps -ef | grep “nginx: master process” | grep -v “grep” | awk -F ‘ ‘ ‘{print $2}’

屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
6302
这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:

kill -HUP 6302

或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:

kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

输入以下内容:

#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path=”/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/”

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/access_$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y%m%d”).log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志

crontab -e

输入以下内容:

00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

附:文章修改历史

● [2009年05月06日] [Version 5.0] 在4.14版本的基础上重新撰写本文,支持PHP 5.2.9,增加MySQL配置过程

● [2009年05月10日] [Version 5.1] 增加压力测试方法。

● [2009年05月20日] [Version 5.2] Nginx升级到0.7.58版本;PHP编译选项增加:–with-xmlrpc –enable-zip。

● [2009年06月10日] [Version 5.3] Nginx升级到0.7.59版本;MySQL升级到5.1.35版本。

● [2009年06月26日] [Version 5.4] Nginx升级到0.7.61版本;PHP升级到5.2.10版本;PCRE升级到7.9版本;PHP增加soap扩展;关闭了PHP的PEAR;优化sysctl配置。

● [2009年09月18日] [Version 5.5] Nginx升级到0.8.15版本;PCRE升级到7.9版本;解决PHP 5.2.10 的PEAR问题。